After the speed of development of nuclear power is lowered, hydropower assumes the "relay" for China's "12th Five-Year" energy demand. Liu Qi, deputy director of the National Energy Administration, recently stated that 120 million kilowatts of hydropower will be built in the next five years, and the total amount of hydropower in China in the past 100 years is only 213 million kilowatts. According to industry sources, the core of the acceleration of hydropower construction is the slowdown in the replacement of nuclear power, but how to solve the relationship between hydropower development and environmental pollution may be the core of the need for decision-making after the speed of hydropower construction.

According to Liu Qi, the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” outlines that hydropower should be actively developed under the premise of ecological protection and resettlement, and that the goal of starting 120 million kilowatts of hydropower during the “12th Five-Year Plan” period should be established. In fact, hydropower began to develop in China in 1910. The total installed capacity reached 213 million kilowatts by the end of 2010, including 956 million kilowatts of new hydropower during the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” period.

As early as last year, the National Energy Administration proposed the hydropower development target of 350 million kilowatts of hydropower installed capacity by 2020. The proposed 120-million kilowatt-watt target means that the hydropower construction rate in the next five years will far exceed the “11. Five and half of the total scale of construction in the past 100 years. Moreover, if this goal is achieved, by 2015, the total installed capacity of hydropower in China will reach 333 million kilowatts, which is close to the 2020 target.

From the reduction in the pace of development of nuclear power to the acceleration of hydropower, these figures are closely related to a goal that is “to achieve non-fossil energy consumption by 15% of primary energy consumption by 2020”, which is what the Chinese government has made to the world. Commitment to reduce emissions. In the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan”, this target of 11.4% is also calculated based on the above goals.

According to the total installed capacity, the main non-fossil energy resources available in China are hydropower, nuclear power, wind power, photovoltaic and biomass energy. The National Energy Administration had previously allocated 15 percent of the “cake” to this country. The share of hydropower in China’s primary energy accounted for about 9 percent, nuclear power accounted for 4 percent, and wind power, solar energy, and other non-fossil energy accounted for 2 percent.

However, the warning effect of the recent nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, has caused this “law” to be adjusted. Wei Zhaofeng, a full-time deputy director of the China Electricity Council, revealed not long ago that the "12th Five-Year Plan" for China's nuclear power development will be transformed from "strengthly development" to "safe and efficient," and the target will also shrink accordingly. This means that other energy sources must have more "efforts."

Among the above-mentioned non-fossil energy sources, although the development of wind power and photovoltaics has been accelerating in recent years, due to its high cost and difficulties in the grid connection technology, it is not expected to be high. The space for hydropower development is still very large. Analytical statistics show that the economically exploitable amount of hydropower in China is 400 million kilowatts, and the amount of technology that can be developed is 540 million kilowatts.

It is worth noting that the above plans are only viewed from an optimistic perspective. In fact, due to the serious damage to the natural environment, hydropower has always been regarded as a "double-edged sword," and the controversy has existed for many years. Ling Jiang, the deputy director of the Department of Pollution Prevention and Control of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, said that when a dam was built due to water pollution caused by hydropower development, the flow of the river was slowed down, and the eutrophication of the water made the cabbage grow wildly. The system was severely damaged. “Water and power may be more serious than the pollution caused by thermal power in some ways, and its losses can be described as shocking.” He said.

It is precisely because of the above reasons that the debate on whether or not hydropower construction should be drastic has continued for many years. The most representative of these is hydropower development in the Nu River basin. The hydropower project decided to build in 2003 was supported by local officials, but environmentalists have always firmly opposed it. The feasibility of this project is still in dispute. At the national level, the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the National Energy Administration have also repeatedly voiced their opinions on the development of hydropower. However, in 2008, the country’s 4 trillion revitalization plan approved more than 100 billion yuan in investment in the power industry. However, it did not have a single fund for the development of hydropower.

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